1. Home
  2. Brand
  3. Kérastase
  4. Bathe - Shampoo
  5. Kérastase Densifique Bain Densité Shampoo

Kérastase Densifique Bain Densité Shampoo 250ml

4.6 of 91 reviews

$48.00

4 instalments of $12.00

Or 4 instalments of $12.00 with LEARN MORE

In Stock 

4 instalments of $12.00

Or 4 instalments of $12.00 with LEARN MORE

Official Stockist

Is this for you?

A gentle shampoo for fine and thinning hair. Improves density and helps build hair strength.

What customers say

GREAT - 88% recommend

4.6
Read all reviews

Age:

  • 20s
  • 30s
  • 40s
  • 50+

Hair Concern:

  • Fine or limp hair
  • Thinning hair
  • Breakage and split ends
  • Dull, lacking shine

Hair Curl Type:

  • Curly
  • Straight
  • Very curly/African/Caribbean
  • Wavy

Hair Texture:

  • Fine
  • Medium

Frequently bought with

Please wait while we find a match

Questions & Answers

(1 Question)

Kérastase Densifique Bain Densité Shampoo

Kérastase Densifique Bain Densité Shampoo

Get an expert to answer your question about this product!

Kérastase Densifique Bain Densité Shampoo Reviews

4.6 of 91 reviews

88% recommend this product

  1. 68

  2. 22

  3. 4

  4. 3

  5. 0

Most Helpful Positive

Nice product

Daisy

I have been using this shampoo for almost a year now. I use it with a Kerastase Conditioner. This product has a pleasant smell, lathers well and lasts ages because you only need a to use a small amount. It leaves your hair feeling very light and clean. It doesn't leave hair feeling greasy and pairs well with a variety of conditioners. I wouldn't say I noticed a massive difference with this shampoo reducing my hair fall, however, it didn't make it worse!

Most Helpful Criticism

Seems to work, depending on routine

Olivia

I only shampoo my hair 2-3 times per week and haven't noticed a long lasting change after using this product. If I blow dry my hair after washing I notice that it feels slightly thicker in a pony tail, but for the cost, I'm not sure it is worth it for me.
  1. Nice product

    Daisy

    I have been using this shampoo for almost a year now. I use it with a Kerastase Conditioner. This product has a pleasant smell, lathers well and lasts ages because you only need a to use a small amount. It leaves your hair feeling very light and clean. It doesn't leave hair feeling greasy and pairs well with a variety of conditioners. I wouldn't say I noticed a massive difference with this shampoo...
    Read More
  2. Volumises

    Kitty

    This is great for limp and fine hair. A little goes a long way so a bottle lasts a long time. The only downside is the price!
  3. nice

    Stella

    Smells great and leaves my hair feeling soft and hydrated without being oily or weighed down. A bit expensive, but does seem to add some volume.
  4. Hair so fresh

    Mama_esp

    Tried this out after having a be experience with another range and this definitely made the difference. Hair even looked thick without blow drying. Impressed.
  5. really good

    leigh

    this stuff is great, cleans my hair so well and smells amazing
  6. Fabulous

    Claudia

    I've always struggled with extremely thin hair and I also have very few. My hair is straight and tends to break easily and go fizzy. (Genetics, hey?)
    It is also coloured as I am starting to get the first patches of greys (ageing, hey?).
    I have purchased Densifique and loved it from the first use.
    It takes a while for your hair to actually become thicker and stronger, but from th...
    Read More
  7. Worth to buy

    Mindy

    I bought it with the travel pack. I want to try this product for a long time. After using it, it is really worthy to buy. It improves my hair's thickness and fullness. Like it.
  8. Very durable product

    Kylie Deng

    verified purchaser
    My hair is about chest length, but I've been using this bottle for six months now and it's very durable and will make my hair fluffy, but the only downside is that it may cause my hair to be more oily!
  9. Best for fine hair

    Ali53

    I wash my hair about 3 times a week and find this works exceptionally well, as my hair is fine and thinning. It also has oily roots and dry ends, this product leaves my hair feeling soft and after a couple of washes definitely thicker. only need a small amount.
  10. Smells so good

    Rebelt

    I have brought this shampoo twice and will buy again. Leaves my hair soft and silky and smells amazing! It is on the way expensive side but can say it is worth it
  11. Does what it says

    Kat

    I love Kerastase in general, because all the products live up to their name - this one is no exception.
    It adds body to my fine hair, and my hair does feel a little thicker. However if you pair this with the matching conditioner, that's when you can feel a significant difference.
  12. Wanted to love it

    Lily

    I wanted to love this shampoo, but it is very strongly perfumed and causes flare ups of seborrheic dermatitis around my hairline. I haven't noticed any benefits for hair density or volume either. Won't be repurchasing.
  13. pretty good

    kittykatkel

    I bought this as I am currently using the Densifique ampoules. I like it, but I don;t think it's amazing. I usually use Shu Uemera Moroto shampoo for volume which I think I'll go back to once I'm done with this. It;s good, but I feel the Moroto shampoo gives me more volume and smells better.
  14. So far so good!

    Juliet

    I just got this shampoo not long ago in the mail. I find it cleans my hair really well and gives my hair nice volume, not too much not too little. I’m enjoying it so far and the scent isn’t too overpowering. Good investment for nice healthy hair and love the brand
  15. My favourite Kerastase range

    SarahMareeDee

    I have tried a few ranges from Kerestase, and the densifique is perfect for my hair, which I would describe as fine, but lots of it. Leavesmy hair iin a soft, shiny condition, definitely adds volume and density and you truly don't need much product. Even with double washing, one bottle lasts me about 2 months.
  16. Amazing

    Fh

    A great shampoo, I used it when I had problems with my hair. It was great ! I would recommend this to those that have thinning problems. A great buy indeed
  17. Best volumising shampoo!

    Anne

    Wow I was concerned about hair loss and thinning hair and this shampoo has solved it all. My hair appears and feels thicker - much thicker than any shampoo I’ve used before. The scent is absolutely to die for!
  18. Highly recommend

    Kitty

    The Kerastase Densifique product range was recommended by my dermatologist as I have naturally fine, thin hair that was shedding excessively. I've been using this product for several years now, in conjunction with the masque, and my hair care regime would not be complete without it. I do believe it helps add density and body to your hair. It smells nice and leaves hair soft. The bottle lasts forev...
    Read More
  19. Fantastic for volume and smells luxe

    Amber

    I love this shampoo already! After a week my hair feels stronger, fuller, and shinier. The only downside is I feel my roots get oilier much quicker and now need to shampoo every second day. Worth the hassle and the money for the great results and the beautiful smell that lingers in the bathroom.
  20. Amazing

    Lanny

    Amazing shampoo. It is hydrating while still creating a nice volume in my hair.
  21. Hair hug

    Laura W

    This made my hair feel smoother after wash & the smell is divine, I love it.
  22. Made my hair oily

    jade

    This shampoo made my hair become oily very quickly after each wash. I only used it 4 times and threw it out. Very sad it didn't work out for me.
  23. I can notice a difference

    Kelly

    This shampoo smells expensive, foams easily and, used with the matching conditioner, my hair does appear fuller without me having to do much else to it. It is a bit expensive but you only need a small amount of product.
  24. The best volumising shampoo I've found!

    Caz

    I love this product because it creates noticeable volume and bounce in my (often limp) hair and really nourishes while shampooing. Like some other volumising shampoos it doesn't dry out the hair, and a little goes a long way... it lathers very easily. I love to use with the Kérastase Nutritive Masque for gorgeous low maintenance hair with volume. I highly recommend it.
  25. Worth the money - the only products that truly repair and grow your hair back

    Jo jo 84

    I experienced a lot of breakage and fall. This in conjunction with their nightly treatments has grown my hair 5 inches in 5 months. I also have less fall and breakage and it makes my hair more dense.
  26. Instant results

    Rachel

    I was honestly blown away with the immediate result my hair had from using this shampoo after the first wash. My hair had body and volume, which definitely justified the exxy purchase of this shampoo. Love!
  27. love!

    Charlotte

    I've been using this shampoo along with the conditioner for that last 1 1/2 months and I love them! Hair definitely feels thicker and has more volume to it after every wash!
  28. I always go back to Kérastase

    Olive

    Whilst the Kérastase brand is a relatively expensive hair care brand, I will have to echo the sentiments of other reviews made by other Kérastase users on this website who say that they always go back to Kérastase.

    On my quest to give my fine and long hair more volume, I have found, in my experience, that the Densifique shampoo effectively gives my hair more volume and body whilst l...
    Read More
  29. Volumising shampoo

    Leonie

    Love the volume that this shampoo gives my hair. Leaves my hair feeling super clean. However the downside is the strong fragrance and SLS
  30. Great product

    Diego

    My hair is in the best condition it has ever been since using Keratase shampoo and conditioner. Highly recommend. Doesn't weigh your hair down and no frizz.
  31. Smooth

    Lee

    I really highly recommend this, feel smoother after wash & very like the smell.
  32. pricy

    Jobaby

    I have fine normal hair. After shampoo hair a bit rough. Smell is good.
  33. 我非常喜欢这款产品

    Angela

    我非常喜欢这款产品,并且用的非常舒服,头发也非常的蓬松,味道也是我喜欢的味道,如果活动好的话我会继续买
  34. Amazing result

    Emily

    This combined with the conditioner has given my hair some great results soon after using it. Definitely worth the money and only needs to be used sparingly. My hair had been falling out in chunks and that is no longer happening.
  35. nice shampoo

    yi

    I really like its smell
  36. Hands down my favourite

    Rhi

    Ive been using this for months now and it is hands down my favourite shampoo. Nice and light on my very fine hair, while still leaving my hair nice and soft and smooth and easy to manage post wash. And the smell is amazing!
  37. Kerastase shampoo and conditioner

    Perthian

    I love it, it does volume and it holds the hair very nicely
  38. Thick and full

    Ko

    This shampoo leaves my hair feeling thicker and fuller. Scent is lovely and not too overpowering. The only negative would be that the shampoo makes my hair feel drier than normal.
  39. works well

    t

    a good shampoo. cleanses and makes my hair super bouncy. would buy again
  40. Expensive but boy it's a great Shampoo

    Nadia

    This Shampoo definitely makes my hair feel thicker. I use the mask too and love it. Although expensive, this product delivers. Love it.
  41. Great Volumising Shampoo

    Jade

    I have very very fine, blonde, damaged hair and this shampoo lathers beautifully, cleanses the scalp and makes my hair feel thicker post wash. I don't think it has made a difference to the health of my hair or general thickening but does 'feel' thicker for a couple of days post was.
  42. Best shampoo

    Toni

    Have tried many shampoos for years trying to find one that will make my hair more full and last more than one day. This shampoo is amazing and smells great! Still on my first bottle after 2 months.
  43. Incredible Shampoo

    Mel

    This shampoo honestly keeps my hair hydrated and more volumised! I can't recommend this product enough for people with fine hair!
  44. Great for extentions too

    Micky

    I have fine hair and sewn extentions. This shampoo is amazing. It's doesn't weight down my "fluff' fine curly hair and it makes my extentions really silky smooth and keeps them in shape. It's worth what you pay with this...
  45. Hair’s best friend

    Camilla

    I noticed a difference in the texture of my hair. Increased shine and thickness. Would recommend for those with thin hair, even if for a short period of time or for every second wash.
  46. A must in the shower

    Lanko

    This shampoo is great. Gently exfoliates the scalp and leaves hair feeling so lush! I love it.
  47. I just started using this shampoo towards the end of last year, and it is excellent.

    Pallavi via BeautyCrew.com

    I just started using this shampoo towards the end of last year, and it is excellent. I have always had very thin hair and poor coverage of my scalp - so much so that it looked like I had a bald patch on the top of my head. I'd tried other products, the 'right' hair cut to try and cover up my thinning parts, but nothing worked. Upon trying this shampoo, I didn't notice a difference straight away, b...
    Read More
  48. I bought this as I have thin hair and after recently colouring it, wanted to invest in better hair care.

    Heather S. via BeautyCrew.com

    I bought this as I have thin hair and after recently colouring it, wanted to invest in better hair care. I also have the accompanying conditioner but there does not seem to be an option to review that! This is a gorgeous shampoo that has a fresh scent which is actually very pleasant and seems to cling to the hair which is quite nice. I use this the way Kerastase advises - a dime sized amount for w...
    Read More
  49. It Delivers

    Rachel

    I recently came off the pill and I lost 50% of my hair. I have very fine, thick, curly mid length hair. I bought the entire range of this product, and I can say I noticed a difference immediately. My hair was thicker and fuller by about 30% following the first use. I also use the treatment once a fortnight in conjunction with other ranges
  50. Love it!

    LK

    I bought this and the matching conditioner and I LOVE them. Best Kerastase find so far.

    I was searching for a shampoo and conditioner combination that would give my lifeless hair some ‘omph’ and thickness (postpartum hair-loss is cruel!). These products did not disappoint. I don’t think it’s stimulating hairgrowth, but more so making the hair I do have, thicker and ‘bouncier’.
    Read More
  51. An absolute sensory delight

    Mez

    Although expensive, this product delivers. It smells amazing and definitely makes my hair feel thicker. I use the mask too and love it. Im not sure if it fades color though, but would love to find out.
  52. Smoonth

    Lee

    Highly recommended,feel good after wash
  53. Love this product!

    Jus

    I have fine curly hair and this adds a lot of volume without making my hair super frizzy. Also smells amazing.
  54. Amazing!

    Chelsea

    Very happy with every product I have tried from the Kérastase brand, including this shampoo. I can see new hair and the condition of the longer lengths of hair has improved despite heat styling. Your scalp feels soooo clean and fresh after using too!
  55. Perfect volumising shampoo

    Grace

    If you don't mind sulfates, then this is the holy grail of volumising and densifying shampoos. It smells delicious, lathers beautifully, doesn't strip the hair, rinses easily, makes your hair feel thicker and gives it tons of body and bounce. I don't have a single bad thing to say about this product.
  56. Love for my fine, damaged hair

    Rhiarne

    My hairdresser recently switched me over to the Kerastase range and I haven’t looked back. This shampoo is lightweight enough not to weigh down my very fine sometimes oily hair, but lathers well and I feel I get a really good clean. Doesn’t leave my hair feeling tangled even after a really good scrub.

    I alternate between 2 different kerastase conditioners depending on what I feel my ...
    Read More
  57. repair

    Sarah

    Helped repair and bring my hair back to its natural thickness
  58. it's alright

    Rachel

    brought this as i am having hair thinning issue. dont really see much of a change from it.
  59. AMAZING literally swear by this long term for results that truly speak for themselves

    Cathryn

    So after having mermaid locks since forever my hair suddenly started thinning and losing length on one side especially....weird I know. After heaps of tests etc basically my hormones wreak havoc on my body and were causing my hair to hate me. I was recommended this by my knowledgeable and fabulous hairdresser (no way affiliated) and 2 bottles later and almost 3 months and my hair has literally dou...
    Read More
  60. Fantastic - thick, volumous hair!

    Mani

    l love this product! It's worth every cent. I only wash my hair twice a week and I alternative with a cheapo shampoo and I can REALLY notice the difference on the day I use this. A little goes a long way with this product and honestly once I blow dry my hair after, I can notice a difference in the thickness of my hair. The smell is amazing and lasts for DAYS - trust me, especially if I'm only wash...
    Read More
  61. Amazing for my thin and bleach damaged hair

    Lauren

    I’ve been using this shampoo and conditioner for months since I’ve bleached my hair and i love how soft and full it looks! My hair is very naturally thin and fine and this gives it a bit more shape.
  62. Seems to work, depending on routine

    Olivia

    I only shampoo my hair 2-3 times per week and haven't noticed a long lasting change after using this product. If I blow dry my hair after washing I notice that it feels slightly thicker in a pony tail, but for the cost, I'm not sure it is worth it for me.
  63. I love this product!

    Kathleen

    I have bought this over and over again! I absolutely love!
  64. Fooled my hairdresser

    Nat

    I used this product together with the densifique conditioner for a few months before seeing my hairdresser for my quarterly trim. My hair is fine, prone to oiliness and very long.
    My hairdresser untied my hair when I sat down in the chair, ran her fingers through my hair and looked up and said "either you're pregnant or you're using some great shampoo". Definitely not pregnant, just healthy ...
    Read More
  65. Fooled my hairdresser

    Nat

    I used this product for a few months before seeing my hairdresser for my quarterly trim. My hair is fine, prone to oiliness and very long.
    My hairdresser untied my hair when I sat down in the chair, ran her fingers through my hair and looked up and said "either you're pregnant or you're using some great shampoo". Definitely not pregnant, just healthy hair which is thickening up thanks to thi...
    Read More
  66. Works as promised

    Viveka

    Bought this shampoo for my husband who has oily scalp and slight hair thining concern. The shampoo cleans well without stripping the hair. Not yet sure how much it helps with thining hair since he has been using it only for few weeks now.
  67. Worth the expense

    Kellie

    I have used this brand for so many years, it’s expensive but even after trying so many other brands, I keep coming back to Kerastse! Worth the money
  68. Worth the money!

    Sel

    My hair is pretty long and it's been looking pretty dull lately. This shampoo makes my hair significantly healthier and smoother, definitely worth the money!
  69. Volume

    Senada

    Smells amazing recommend this for thin hair gives my hair a boost putting a lot of volume in my hair gives you a Full effect
  70. Excellent

    Clarice

    Really good for my blonde hair. I use in the reconstruction step.
  71. Does add body

    Emma

    I purchased this in conjunction with the rinse out (conditioner). It has taken me a couple of weeks to get used to them - i have long, untreated wavy hair with a bit of curl - and at first i this was drying my hair out even though it was adding body. Since adding an oil once my hair is dry the results are great.
  72. Great product

    Lauren

    Very nice shampoo makes hair soft and great smell
  73. The best shampoo for luscious thick locks!

    Aida

    I was sceptical at first as no shampoo could add volume to my hair (I have heavy, flat Asian hair) and this shampoo has made my hair so healthy looking. Smells wonderful, hair feels clean for days, the bottle last me for about 4-5 months and I wash my hair every day! Love that this shampoo does not dry my hair out as it has hyualuronic acid. After using this, some baby hair started to show up, for...
    Read More
  74. Love

    Brittany

    You can not go wrong with Kerastase products and this one is no exception. If you have fine hair or hair lacking body this shampoo is great. Whilst my hair is naturally fine and lacks volume and body this shampoo always revives my hair. Would highly recommend
  75. Good product

    Su

    Hair fall less when started to use the product after two weeks. Worth a try !
  76. Happy

    Patricia

    I’ve used this shampoo three times now and have been fairly happy with the results. I have very fine, thin hair and I’ve found it doesn’t dry out or strip my hair as some of the other shampoos for fine hair do, Nioxin, for one. I would think twice about buying it again however, because for the price. I have used Aveda shampoo for fine hair which is cheaper, and it’s a toss up which is the bette...
    Read More
  77. Just finish my second bottom

    Cynthia

    Just move to Australian, maybe because of the Sydney's hard water, I started to loss my hair, very badly. My hair is thin and flat in natural. I have been tried many different products to control my hair loss, but does not work, until I find Kerastase. I can clearly feel that I loss less hair now. It worked for me very well at least. So, 5 starts recommendation for all the beauties who are experie...
    Read More
  78. Game Changer!

    Shea

    My hair is naturally very thin, fine and flat. I really wanted to find a product that boosted volume and gave more thickness to my hair. This shampoo exceeded my expectations.My hair looks and feels so much fuller. The ends look thick and blunt instead of wispy. I even have managed to change from daily hair washing to just twice a week so it makes this product very good value for money. I use in c...
    Read More
  79. Average product

    Amy

    Bought this to help post partum hair thinning / loss. Makes my hair feel a little thicker but otherwise less shiny than usual. Quite a strong fragrance also which I don’t mind but may be an issue if you don’t love it! Won’t be repurchasing at this price point.
  80. does the job.... but

    Mariah

    I really enjoyed this shampoo when i first started using it, the smell is absolutely divine, but over time i have found it to just be too drying for my fine hair (which needs volume but not to be stripped)
    I still have this sitting in my shower despite polishing off the conditioner long ago.. probably wouldn't buy again.
  81. Hair like straw and breaking easily

    Jessica

    I purchased this product along with the mask. Love the mask, however the shampoo is making my hair worse. Feels like straw, has lost its shine, and have had a lot of breakage, and no new hair growth. I have very fine thin hair and not much of it. Would not purchase again.
  82. My go-to shampoo

    Rebecca

    The only shampoo I’ve continued to repurchase again and again. It gives my fine hair some oomph but is very lightweight so it never leaves a residue.
  83. happy

    Rachael

    Very happy with this shampoo, haven't looked back since the first wash. My hair has noticeably more volume and feels weightless
  84. Wouldn’t repurchase

    Melanie

    I bought the set of this shampoo / conditioner and mask as I’ve got very fine / thinning blonde hair. I’ve been using it solidly for 3 months and if anything have noticed my hair getting worse. It seems to snap easier and literally feel about 10 hairs break off every time I run my hand through my hair. Haven’t noticed any new growth. For the price I had much higher expectations. I usually have bo...
    Read More
  85. Best bodifying shampoo I’ve tried

    Danielle

    This product is the best bodifying shampoo I have tried. I had a massive hair loss, and this shampoo gave what I had volume and body.
  86. law of diminishing returns

    Gail

    I have blonde very fine hair. initially had great results, however these seemed to taper off with time.
    Not sure if i can recommend long-term.

    it was great while it lasted
  87. Great Shampoo

    Stacey

    Bought this mainly for my partner but I use occasionally and definitely notice my hair being thicker - my in laws have too!
  88. Did not see any results from using this shampoo

    Davie

    I didn't see the results from this shampoo that were specifically promised in relation to helping the thinning of hair and adding volume (it may work for you though). It was still alright to use as a shampoo because it at least did make my hair feel clean so I got through most of the bottle. However, I would not re-purchase.
  89. Great if your hair is fine and lacks volume.

    Michaela

    This product was recommended to me by my hairdresser. I have very fine, thin hair that lacks volume and is prone to oiliness. This shampoo and conditioner combo volumises my hair like nothing else. It also doesn't seem to 'build up' in the hair like other hair products seem to do. A little does go a long way which helps me justify the cost.
  90. Did not work for me

    Abby

    After 2 uses, this product made my hair feel fuller but at the expense of turning it to straw! My scalp was dry and itchy. Have left the bottle in the guest bathroom, in case any one wants to try it (I warn them first!)
  91. So Good!

    Kitty

    I hate how expensive it is but gosh Its so good. Absolutely love this thing. This gives me volume and lift without making my hair look frizzy. It doesn't make my hair kink at the base like a lot of volumizing shampoos does.
  92. Love this shampoo!

    Emily

    Bought this shampoo after my hair had suffered a lot of damage post surgery. It is definitely worth the investment. Felt an instant difference, my hair feels stronger and healthier and find it falling out a lot less. It is quite expensive but I find myself using less product and lasting longer between washes. Really nice smell too.
  93. Perfect for fine hair

    Olivia

    One of the few shampoo's I've used that actually adds body and volume without adding build up to my hair. I do two shampoo washes each time to ensure it's extra clean, so the product in the bottle doesn't last as long as i'd like it to. Other than that, no complaints!
  94. Healthy hair

    Jessica

    I was using this as I had a lot of postpartum hair loss and I really could see it helping my regrowth.
    My hair was growing back strong and healthy and I had a lot less hair loss.
    I only need a small amount and it lathers well and cleans my scalp really well without stripping the natural oils.
    I feel like I could last longer between washes because my hair felt clean for longer.
    Read More
  95. Squeaky clean

    Joanna (Adore Beauty Staff)

    I'm really liking this shampoo. I've been using it for about 6 weeks now, I have medium-long fine hair and this 250ml bottle is still going. The formula lathers up really well, and leaves my roots feeling very clean. I can see a noticeable increase in volume at the roots, and the mid-lengths and ends feel less frizzy/damaged. I also really like the light fragrance. I'll definitely keep using this ...
    Read More
  96. I LOVE Kerastase

    Kathy

    I have tried many many many brands of shampoo and put simply I can not find anything that comes close to Kerastase. My hair loves it, soft, bouncy and beautiful
    I stopped using it as the price is a tad high, but I just don't get the results with other brands.
    My only gripe is that Kerastase Australia have set such a high market price compared to other countries like the UK
  97. Worth the price

    Ruchie

    I have been using this shampoo for nearly two weeks now and have seen a noticeable change in the texture and density of my hair. My hair doesn't seem that flat anymore and the bounce lasts for two days (from the day of shampooing) without having to backcomb or use any sprays. Another charm of using the Kerastase Densifique Bain Desite shampoo for me is that it does not make my hair much oily betw...
    Read More
  98. Review & Earn
Recommended for you

Find more of...

Related Searches

Join Now >
Filled with the usual things we know you'll love, and surprises you might not expect, it's real rewards, really simple.